Lung Cancer is among the most common types of cancer in Germany. The high mortality rate is often due to diagnosis at a late stage: 40 % of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients present with metastases at the time of diagnosis. Advances in molecular tumor analysis have led to new opportunities to develop targeted therapies that act on specific molecular targets of the cancer cell. Besides chemotherapy and targeted therapy, immunotherapy has gained significance as the third main pillar of systemic therapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors unmask the cancer cells and enhance the body’s immune response against malignant cells. Today, combined treatment approaches in precision medicine enable the application of the most effective treatment regimen for each patient. However, not all patients respond to targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Therefore, an important research goal is the identification of predictive markers indicating clinical response or potential treatment failure, for example through evidence of genetic tumor material towards biomarker-directed precision medicine.