Direct vasodilator delivery to the airways enables a selective therapy of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, short-term effects of the applied medication require multiple daily inhalations. Controlled release formulations (polymeric nanomedicines) offer the potential of prolonging drug effects within the respiratory tract, thereby reducing the number of necessary inhalations. In the model of U46619-elicited PH, sildenafil and two sildenafil-loaded polymeric submicron particle formulations were evaluated for their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and acute tolerability. Lung-delivered sildenafil caused a selective dose-dependent decline of the pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance. Compared to the transient pharmacodynamic effect observed for sildenafil, the same dose of nanoencapsulated sildenafil resulted in prolongation, but not augmentation, of the pulmonary vasodilatation. An extended pharmacokinetic profile was observed for nanoencapsulated sildenafil, and nanomedicines revealed no acute toxicity. The amplification of pulmonary vasodilatory response caused by nanoencapsulation of sildenafil offers an intriguing approach to ameliorate the therapy of PH. From the Clinical Editor: Pulmonary hypertension usually results in right heart failure long term. Current medical therapy includes the use of potent vasodilators such as sildenafil. In this article, the authors investigated the use of nanoencapsulated formulation for sustained delivery via inhalation route. An extended pharmacokinetic profile was seen for this nanoformulation with little side effects. It is hoped that clinical application of this would come to fruition soon.
- Beck-Broichsitter, M.; Hecker, A.; Kosanovic, D.; Schmehl, T.; Gessler, T.; Weissmann, N.; Ghofrani, H. A.; Kissel, T.; Seeger, W.; Schermuly, R. T.
- Administration, Inhalation
- Delayed-Action Preparations/*administration & dosage/chemistry
- Hypertension, Pulmonary/*drug therapy/*physiopathology
- Pulmonary Circulation/*drug effects
- Sildenafil Citrate/*administration & dosage/chemistry
- Treatment Outcome
- Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage
- Controlled drug release
- Polymeric nanomedicines
- Prolonged vasodilation
- Pulmonary drug delivery
- Pulmonary hypertension